Comparison of A-Level Economic Development Pathways — Tagging Teacher Networks (2023)

Subject 2

Development path comparison

New France and the 13 American Colonies

from 1600 to 1750

New France and the 13 colonies followed very different developmental paths, resulting in very different growth rates. Cod fishing led to contact with the lands of New France, while pelts dominated trade during the French occupation and led to economic growth. In contrast, the staple food trade of the thirteen colonies was quite diversified: tobacco, rice, indigo, and wood in the form of ships were some of the main trade activities. The following sections attempt to explain the difference in growth rates between the two geographic regions between 1600 and 1750.

John Cabot was the first Englishman to see fish in abundance off the coast of Newfoundland. He returned with this discovery and returned the following year with many fishermen to exploit this natural resource. As a result, people came to what soon became known as "New France" to fish and bring it back to their homeland or sell it in foreign markets, not to explore or colonize the "New World". Contact with the soil is accidental, as dry salting is used to preserve the fish. In this method, the fish is gutted, lightly salted and dried in the sun. This method is superior to the green curing method as it requires less salt that is difficult to obtain and also results in better food quality for the fish. The fish is also preserved in this way for longer, allowing fishermen to export the fish to distant markets. Thus contact with land became inevitable as more and more fishermen turned to dry salting. Some have hypothesized that the first settlers were in fact fishermen who stayed to occupy the best fishing grounds. This assumption seems correct, as one looks in the history books and discovers that the first settlers were servants of ship stewards who traveled to New France on fishing boats and were ordered to stay by their employers. In the end, some ferry managers and other fishermen also chose to stay rather than return for similar reasons. Although the people left behind by fishing cannot be called "settlement", because the number is small and there is no natural increase, since there are almost no women among them. Cod fishing as an activity did not lead to the establishment of settlements, mass immigration or prosperous colonies. One of the main reasons was the unwillingness of people to stay in the "New World" to earn a living, as the climate and nature of the land were not conducive to agriculture. Long winters, short growing seasons and relatively sandy soils prevent many from establishing themselves without some form of subsidy. Entrepreneurs in Western countries with strong political power also resist settlement for fear that permanent settlement would claim the best fisheries and reap the benefits of the cod fishery. This shows that New France did not have many immigrants from the beginning trying to develop a thriving economy.

begin 17AndAround the turn of the century, the economic situation in the new colonies seemed to change. "The key to this development is what is happening in the European fur trade. The fur trade depends on European fashion"; it was considered a luxury item and was used to make the extremely popular felt hat worn by all gentlemen. The skin meets almost all the requirements of a perfect staple food; requires few people and is of great value (high price for a small amount of fur), which means low transportation costs, high demand and high quality (the nature and climate of New France a large number of fur animals), it does not require complex machinery or skilled labor, which means that it does not require a large start-up capital, and finally, it does not compete directly with goods in the country of origin. Fur could also be obtained relatively easily through trade with the Indians, without heavy lifting or heavy lifting, which would be necessary if farming was to be practiced. In short, it is currently a well-paid, fast-returning activity that requires relatively little effort and a small initial investment. Settlers were therefore drawn to New France by the potential profits to be made from sourcing furs. They have no plans to establish and develop a colony.

The fur trade was profitable but required formal control and organization by an authority to control fur prices because "the Indians made no distinction between French and French". If a Frenchman cheated them, all the fur traders in that country would suffer.As a result, the French government granted certain companies monopoly rights to trade fur in specific regions, and made the company responsible for monitoring the activities of fur traders and enforcing a code of ethics. Another reason for giving a particular company a monopoly on the fur trade was that it was expected to be more than a trading company; in fact, it carried out some of the government's activities, such as "supporting the navy or arming merchant ships to protect pioneer territories and shipping between countries of origin".In addition, the company was given the burden of bringing about an agreement. For all these purposes, the company decided it needed all the profits from the fur trade to fund these expensive activities. The French government hoped that as a result of this monopoly a thriving colony would emerge, which would provide an outlet for the surplus French population, provide an outlet for French products and enhance the prestige of the mother country. In short, the government thought that by establishing a colony in New France it would reap all the benefits that England had obtained from its thirteen colonies. The responsibility for realizing this vision lies with the company. Economically, the two goals of trade and colonization were at odds. The fur trade was highly profitable and did not require many Europeans: too many people involved in the fur trade would lead to overfishing and lower per capita profits. Colonization, on the other hand, meant a loss of financial resources. Bringing settlers to New France and helping them settle in the area required a great deal of money; deforestation was extremely expensive and a slow process. In addition, due to the relatively sandy climate and soil, food must be imported in large quantities. Settlers also needed subsidies to survive the harsh conditions. The company is not inclined to bring in settlers and then provide them with additional facilities, as this would significantly reduce their profits. Colonization therefore suffered as the company neglected its responsibility to establish settlements for the more lucrative fur trade. The French were also allied with the Algonquian and Huron tribes, who provided them with furs in exchange for European goods. This alliance resulted in French enemies of the Iroquois tribe, who were hostile to the Huron and Algonquian tribes. "The Iroquois regularly raided French settlements, pillaging farms and destroying any existing agriculture."News of these events further discouraged people from emigrating to New France to start a new life.

Another French attempt to encourage colonization was the introduction of estates. Large tracts of land along the St. Lawrence were given to elite members of society. These men, known as gentlemen, were expected to bring settlers to New France in exchange for land grants. Residents would then engage in agricultural activities, develop the farming industry, and then pay rent for the privilege. The system eventually failed because it required a lot of initial investment and then had to wait a long time to pay off; it was too expensive to take...


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