This is another guest post by Soleil García Brito. It is a reading, listening and speaking lesson plan for B2+ students on compulsory vaccination. Download the following materials:
- The Vaccination Debate - Notes from the Professor
- The Vaccination Debate - Student Workbook
- What is a vaccine and how do they work?
- Have you been vaccinated against anything?
- Would you get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 if there was a vaccine?
- Do you think vaccination should be mandatory?
Video -Why are some children still not getting the MMR vaccine? | ITV News
Watch the video and answer the following questions
- Are vaccinations compulsory in England?
- According to the video report, who is to blame for the decline in vaccination rates?
- Does the British public trust health experts?
- What is the UK Health Secretary's position on making vaccinations compulsory?
- How does the UK government plan to stop the spread of fake news about vaccines?
Watch the video again and listen to the words in the gaps below. Discuss the meaning of the words or phrases in the gaps.
Teacher Tip → If necessary, roll twice.
- In the UK it is_________Parents if their child has been vaccinated against measles
- but if we want_________Measles outbreaks are not spreading, we need 95 percent of the population vaccinated
- But why are we like this_________now because of measles?
- Over half a million children in the UK_________in the MMR puncture between 2010 and 2017
- Some________________what is known as the anti-vaccination movement
- Many fear the MMR vaccine could cause autism, one theory___________by former British doctor Andrew Wakefield
- In 1998 he published an article claiming there was a link, but his findings were later complete_________and he left__________medical record.
- ___________, Public Health England believes social media is not an important factor
- Health Secretary Matt Hancock declined_________Children can't go to school unless they've been vaccinated against measles, but infection experts said this drastic solution could________an increase in anti-vaxxers
- ... to remove any posts that promote false or misleading information about______, like MMR.
In the UK it isbisParents when their children are vaccinated against measles. Last year, 87% of children received the full dose of MMR; What do measles, mumps and rubella mean? That number seems pretty high, doesn't it? but if we wantto guaranteeMeasles outbreaks are not spreading, we need 95 percent of the population vaccinated. This is called herd immunity. But why are we like thisconcernednow because of measles? Measles is one of the most contagious diseases; it can cause brain damage, blindness, and even death. And now cases are increasing in England. They almost quadrupled last year, from 259 in 2017 to 966 in 2018. Over half a million children in the UKLostin the triple virus vaccination between 2010 and 2017, and every year the number of vaccinated increasesdrops. So why are vaccination ratesdownward? Well, it's not just Britain. In the United States, 2.6 million children have not been vaccinated. Someassign itwhat is known as the anti-vaccination movement. Anti-vaccinationists believed that certain vaccines were not safe. Many fear the MMR vaccine could cause autism, one theoryderivedby former British doctor Andrew Wakefield. In 1998 he published an article claiming there was a link, but his findings were later completediscreditedand he leftdejectedmedical record. The National Autism Society has since said there was no link between autism and the vaccine, but the scary story continues to spread. Go online for information about vaccines and you'll find that social media is awash with anti-vaccine propaganda. But is the anti-vaccination movement to blame?As a matter of fact, Public Health England believes social media is not an important factor. Parents were surveyed and found that 93% considered health professionals to be the most reliable source of information about vaccinations. In fact, Public Health England believes the key to improving vaccination rates is sending reminders to parents and making doctor appointments more convenient so vaccinations can actually take place. So what can be done to increase the number of vaccinations? Well, in France vaccination of children was made compulsory by law last year. Could this be taken over here? Health Secretary Matt Hancock declineddescosindereChildren can't go to school unless they've been vaccinated against measles, but infection experts said this drastic solution couldfuela surge in the anti-vaccine movement. For now, the governor plans to stop the spread of fake news by introducing legislation that would force social media companies like Facebook to remove any posts promoting false or misleading informationholes, like MMR.
Discussion – assembly – reading puzzles
Discuss with your partner or group whether you are for or against compulsory vaccination. Then summarize the main ideas to present to the rest of the class.
Tip for the teacher → there are 12 statements in total: 3 FOR, 3 AGAINST and their counterpoints. This activity can be structured in different ways depending on class size, level and time constraints. Here is a suggestion for structuring the activity:
Puzzle reading phase 1:
- Cut out the texts; Keep points and counterpoints separate.
- Divide the class into pairs or groups of three depending on the number. Ideally you want 3-6 groups.
- Give each pair/group a point. Don't give any counterpoints for now.
- Instruct students to read their text and first decide if it is an argumentforÖagainstmandatory vaccination. Have pro/con columns on the board and keep track of the points. Students can even go to the board to write their points in the column.
- Ask the students to read their texts again and summarize them in their own words.
- Clear any doubts about the meaning.
- Students present their summaries to the class.
Puzzle reading phase 2:
- Now tell the students that you have counterpoints for each of the points they just saw.
- Distribute the counterpoint texts randomly among each group.
- Students should now combine their counterpoint with the points above from Phase 1 and then summarize for the class.
- Clear any doubts about the meaning.
Ask the students to look for underlined words and phrases in the texts they are looking at; Ask them to derive meaning from context, looking for helpful collocations and expressions.
You can now have a class discussion on the topic. Divide the class into two teams and decide which team will discussforjagainstmandatory vaccination. Encourage students to include their own ideas and opinions, as well as previously explored points and counterpoints. You can structure the discussion in a number of ways. Follow the link below for discussion language and suggested discussion structures:https://freeenglishlessonplans.com/2017/11/17/debating-at-higher-levels/
It is the state's duty to protect its community
In a developed country like the US, unvaccinated people were 35 times more likely to get itget measlesas the vaccinated; In developing countries, where these viruses are still endemic, the risk would be significantly higher. After a scare about possibleside effectsof the MMR vaccine there was a drop in voluntary vaccination in part of London (Lewisham) in 2008. Only 64.3% of children in this part of London were vaccinated and that year the borough was responsible for a third of all measles cases in south-east London. If there is no 95 percent vaccination, there is a major public health threat from infection outbreaks. Therefore, it is the role and duty of the state to understand these issues and possible threats and to offer protection and care, in this case in the form of vaccination.
A voluntary vaccination should suffice
Mandatory vaccination is an example of the tyranny of the majority, even when it comes from a democratic government. And in a community that prides itself on being democratic and respectful of the wishes of others, it is not at all acceptable that the rights of some be abused for the wishes of others. Additionally, the UK does not have a mandatory healthcare system, howeverdisease outbreaksthey are still avoided through voluntary vaccination. Pediatrician Miriam Fine-Goulden explains: “The risk of contracting these infections is so low today because the volunteerstaking vaccineswas (in most cases) high enough to reduce the possibility of contact with these organisms through the process ofherd immunity.“
duty to protect children
Millions of children around the world die from it every yearpreventable diseasesfive years ago. The argument put forward here is that the state must protect and immunize the child against preventable diseases because at this stage the child is obviously unable to make his or her own informed decisions. United Nations Treaty on the Right to Liberty and Security of Persons, Article 6.2supports this opinion- States parties shall, as far as possible, ensure the survival and development of the child.
Forcing parents to be vaccinated could be counterproductive
the key problemThis is about who decides on children's health needs: the authorities or the parents? Critics of compulsory vaccination argue that it can have the opposite effect and ultimately demonize parental choices. In fact, introducing mandatory vaccines can backfire and worry parents.withdraw children from schooland strengthen anti-vaccination sentiment.
Compulsory vaccination is an economic relief for the healthcare system
Commonly used vaccines are aeconomicallyjpreventiveHealth promotion versus treatment of acute or chronic diseases. In the United States, routine childhood immunization against seven diseases was estimated in 2001 to save more than $40 billion per birth-year in total social costs, including $10 billion in direct health care costs and a social cost-benefit estimate ratio of these vaccines to $16.5 billion. Even if fewer people get sick,productivity ratesremain high and less money goes to health and social programs.
The cost of the vaccines themselves is high.
The vaccines themselves are expensive to develop in the laboratory and mass producespreadmandatory vaccination programs. The cost of developing a vaccine, from research and discovery to product registration, is estimated to be between $200 million and $500 million per vaccine. Besides thatstart-up costs, organizing mandatory immunization programs in a country can be very complicated and expensive. For example, mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that the program is truly mandatory, meaning that a database is created of who has and has not received the vaccine.
The obligation to vaccinate violates the right to physical integrity
In most countries and declarations, one of the most basic human rights is that of physical integrity. It states that you have the right not to have your body or your persondisturbed. This means that the state cannot do anything that harms your body without your consent. The NHS (National Health Service) explains: “You must give your consent (permission) before receiving any type of medical treatment, from a simple blood test to a decision to donate your organs after you die. If you refuse treatment, your decision must be respected.” This principle must also apply to vaccination.
Social responsibility comes before individual rights
The problem with the idea of "individual rights" is that those who oppose vaccinesthe statementThis effectively violates the same rights as other people if and when the disease that the vaccine protects against breaks out. those who wantrejectVaccination (often on behalf of their children, who have no say in the matter) are the classic opportunists hoping to cash in on those responsibleBehavethe rest of society. Because most of society should see it as a responsibility and duty to protect others.
Parents have the right to decide whether or not to vaccinate their children.
By birth, the child and parents have a binding agreement that is supported by society. This agreement implies a number of rights and obligations that are oriented and justified in the best interests of the child. As a guardian, the father has a duty to work and direct his life towards the well-being and development of the child,for the good of the child. Hence the father is endowed with a special kind of authority over the son. If the parents believe that the child is safer andbetter withoutIn an unvaccinated society, parents have the right not to vaccinate their child.
Parents do not have an absolute right to make decisions about their children.
A vaccine for adultsrejectionand parental refusal to be vaccinated are not the same. Parents have no absolute right to put their children at risk, even if they are themselvesGladlyAccept such a risk for yourself. Minors have the right to be protected from infectious diseases and society has a responsibility to ensure the well-being of children who may be harmed by their parents' choices. Since not vaccinating children can put their future at risk, there should be no ultimate parental power to prevent vaccination.
Vaccines have serious side effects
Some of the vaccines used can have serious side effects, so we should let each individual assess the risk and make their own decisions. In addition to introducing foreign proteins and even live viruses into the bloodstream, each vaccine has its own preservative, neutralizer, and carrier.The evidence suggests so toothat vaccines damage the immune system itself because vaccines cause the body to stop eliciting a general response. In addition, the long-term persistence of viruses and other foreign proteins in cells of the immune system has been linked to a number of chronic diseases, including allergies. In addition, MMR vaccines can genetically predispose a child to autism,WeilThimerosal, which is a mercury-containing compound.
Lack of evidence on the prevalence of serious side effects
First, many of the arguments that suggest vaccines are dangerous relate to observations dating back to the 1960s or 1970s. Since then, more recent studies have found no link between MMR vaccines and autism. A 2011 study by the German Institute for Health that compared the prevalence of allergies and infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated children and adolescents also concluded that there was no difference between them.exceptthe frequency of vaccine-preventable diseases such as mumps or measles.
The text was reproduced and adapted fromhttp://www.idebate.orgcourtesy of the International Association for Debating Education.
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